Geek teknik


Kategori: Allmänt

From the summary exploration that has been done, it is clear that a project-based approach to learning is rooted in an enduring history and produces results that are deemed worthy of attention. The following authors and papers, provide from not only provide confirmation of this, but also point the way, in most cases, to further research.

a) Already at the end of the 19th century, John Dewey, in the experimental elementary school he created at the University of Chicago, put forward an approach to teaching and learning based on activities and projects related to social reality, rather than on separate subjects, and later proposed the generalization of a similar school model (see Tanner and Tanner, 1990, p. 157 and Dewey, 1956, mainly pages 63 to 94).
The Dalton Plan, developed by Helen Parkhurst, first in a school in Dalton, Massachusetts, in 1916, and then implemented in a school in New York City beginning in 1919, also provided for student work in small groups. In the New York school, which still exists, the use of NICTs has been actively promoted for some years and students have been offered the opportunity to use these technologies to carry out relatively complex projects. The specific evaluations that have accompanied these initiatives appear to have yielded results that merit attention (see Sheridan et al., 1995).

b) In 1918, William H. Kilpatrick published a theoretical study entitled The Project Method, which had a great impact during the following decades (see Tanner and Tanner, 1990, pp. 157-162 and Kilpatrick, 1918) and which, until recently, was referred to in support of an explicitly project-based learning pedagogical experience (see Wolk, 1994).

It should be noted that the ERIC database mentions a document that traces the historical roots of the project-based approach ("The Project Approach") in the United States between 1850 and 1930. The author presents the thinking on the subject of Friedrich Froebel, William James, G. Stanley Hall and Francis W. Parker, in addition to that of Dewey and Kilpatrick (see DuCharme, 1993).

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